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Category: Finance

What Are The Special Funds ETFs?

What Are The Special Funds ETFs? ETFs are investment through the stock markets, and are traded in the same way in which the shares of companies traded. These funds are to track the movement of many of the financial instruments that may be difficult for many Step 2 Wealth Software investors traded along the lines of the global stock market indicators, the performance of certain equity sectors, as well as commodities such as gold, silver and bonds.

ETFs are considered a modern financial instruments somewhat in the global capital markets, which enables many investors to take advantage of fluctuations occurring in many markets and trading many financial instruments such as stocks, commodities, foreign exchange, bonds and futures, so that the circulation of these assets may not be available to those investors due to lack of necessary capital, which makes trading ETFs a better choice for this category due to the low cost and the multiplicity of forms. The evolution of the global financial markets and to provide more flexibility and solutions to the traders or investors and increase the ease of access to capital at low cost, and take advantage of fluctuations in many of the financial instruments prices. It has been creating different types of ETFs traded on the model of the indicators that we will talk about through the following article boxes.


What are the indicators traded funds?
ETFs (exchange-traded fund), which usually have symbolized the symbol “ETF” is one of the varieties of investment funds newly founded, and is characterized as combining the main features of traditional investment funds in terms of the diversity of the portfolio constituents and in terms of the possibility of accessing them without the need for capital huge. ETFs are investment through the stock markets, and are traded in the same way in which the shares of Step 2 Wealth Review companies traded. These funds are to track the movement of many of the financial instruments that may be difficult for many investors traded along the lines of the global stock market indicators, the performance of certain equity sectors, as well as commodities such as gold, silver and bonds.
What are the special funds ETFs?
Traded own and also called Exchange Traded white label, is one of the most innovative solutions in the field of ETFs, which has established in order to provide flexibility and ease of access to the funds investors capital funds funds. And it called the funds “white-label” because they do not carry the original owner of the company for the fund name, and called this term (white label) usually on the products marketed and sold as a different company from the original company that manufacture the product name, which is the same thing that applies to this funds so that they shop on behalf of the Director is the name of the fund.
How own ETFs
Although the solutions offered by traditional indicators of investors funds, but the creation of one of these funds requires costs and the heads of big money, in addition to the expert, complex and lengthy legal procedures and management team, and appropriate infrastructure. The total cost of up to create a single fund indices to 2 or 3 million dollars, Add to that the difficulty of obtaining an expert in capital management team, and the time that the fund may need to become listed on the Stock Exchange of up to 3 years.

Due to these reasons resorted individuals who want to create a trader indicators Fund to some companies that are creating these funds (the companies called the Exchange Traded white label) funds at a cost of no more than in most of the cases of 200 thousand dollars, where these companies provide all the requirements for legal procedures, management and governance, marketing the fund to be listed on the stock market becomes investors traded, and all this within a period of several months at a time when needed for up to 3 years for the establishment of traditional indicators Fund. And you get the same white label index funds in exchange for the establishment of funds indicators on the share of the profits realized by the fund when trading in the market, to continue in his administration and that the Fund retains his name.

Currently known as the field of index funds with a white mark a tremendous development so that industry has become a stand-alone, as a result of the solutions offered for individuals who want to create a rolling fund indices without passing of stages needed for the establishment of traditional indicators trader Fund. Company “ALPS Alerian MLP” is one of the largest and most companies that provide the establishment of index funds with an estimated total market value of the funds managed in excess of $ 8.3 billion, which manages dozens of ETFs that track the performance of many sectors and financial instruments Funds service.

Investors can indicators that are included in the financial market, through ordinary brokerage firms that provide stock traded funds traded in the same way in which the latter trading. These ETF funds offer several solutions with regard to benefit from fluctuations defined by the various financial assets and global markets, regardless of the quality of the investors and their goals, whether they are trading in order to speculate on short-term or long-term investment, or even carry out the hedging of risks.

The Employment Of Financial Engineering Instruments For Hedging Purposes

The Employment Of Financial Engineering Instruments For Hedging Purposes; Private agricultural companies face several risks resulting from price fluctuations, particularly share prices, so it was a duty on these companies use hedging with financial engineering strategy for the purpose of making the risk at the lowest settled opinion that the adoption of this Rubix Project Brian Morgan strategy is the adoption of strategies and tools derivatives within the framework of financial engineering, as follows :

Financial Options
Financial Options

First, the application of hedge options strategy:
Will be the application of this strategy is the adoption of bilateral binomial model for a period of one and two terms:
A: One of the options pricing for: The One Period
It is known on this model that it uses to estimate the actual options and called duo or binomial, because it is assumed in the second period of time to have the price set one value from two different values, depending on the assumptions of this model range are:

Free rate risk, which is equal to the stability (10%), which represents the interest payments by these special on fixed deposits and agricultural companies.

Possible lending or borrowing rate risk-free.
No taxes or exchange or the margin requirements mandated.
Investors can use short selling of any securities.

And tries to find the application of this model in the Iraqi Special Agricultural corporate environment, as the use was, and still is limited to efficient financial markets.

It is the table (1) note the use of the bilateral model for one, as it represents the column (1) share in the private agricultural companies price, and the column (2) represents the strike price agreed upon, which according to Rubix Project Trading company shares by 90% from current prices within the column (1) , an approach adopted for the percentage of the previous studies on the Iraqi Special contribute to the environment in earlier times ratio, and pointed columns (4.3) to the amount of rise and fall, which was (0.10 to 0.0, 10) and this could be the column calculation (6, 5), and another for the purposes of the adoption of equations, which illustrate the rising share price decline:

SU = S (1 + U) ………… (1)
Or the price is reduced by a percentage D becomes its price:
SD = S (1 + D) ………… (2)
To apply it to buy stock option, assuming that the option price is C and the price of the agreed implementation it is E and when the implementation date, the option value either to rise and become CU or fall and become a CD Since the option price at the end of the period represents a real value, so it can express that equations following cases:
CU = Max S (1 + U) – E ………… (3)
CD = Max S (1 + D) – E …………. (4)
Seen from the equation (3) that the option price will rise because the share price upon execution S (1 + U) is greater than the exercise price E is therefore in the interest of the call option holder to implement the agreement and to make profit represents the difference between the stock price at the date of execution and the agreed strike price attic, quite the contrary, in the equation (4) the value of which may be negative, since the option has no negative value, then the value will be the last equation equal to zero because the option buyer is obliged to implement.
The fair theoretical option value per period, which represents the last column of the matrix, it has made all private agricultural companies build a portfolio were mostly lower than the right one with the exception of the Middle East for the fish, which has achieved value right per superiority of (2.646).
We conclude from the foregoing, that can be developed mathematical models to adopt the Iraqi Special Agricultural corporate environment, including dual-binomial model for the period and the one who can be when used to reach fair value of the theory of choice.
It is noticeable, too, that the Middle East for the fish, which achieved the highest value of fair theory of choice was the price of its shares is the highest percentage of the price of the shares of agricultural companies, hence we infer that the relationship between the option price in the financial markets and the price of the stock in the market is always direct correlation.

B: pricing options for two Rubix Project Brian Morgan consecutive terms: The Two Period Model
It is known that stock prices are characterized by relatively stable always be prone always rise or fall, and that sometimes gets to bring the share price rise in the first period and then another rise in the second period, and here was to determine the nature of this paragraph to take these variables into account to two terms of time periods ((2 Year.
Upon a closer look at the table (2), containing options pricing for two terms using the binary model, it shows that the rise and fall within the column (4.3) was calculated for two terms and by (0.10), and this is what settled the opinion within the previous studies related mainly based on Empty the yield of the risks of interest on fixed accounts in private banks, which amount to their rates by (0.10) a year, and then possible to calculate the height of the stock under the equation and the two terms, has said research show that the share price will either rise or fall, and that means having two possible occurrence of one of them in the future, if the share price rose in the first period to SU then rose again in the second period

The table shows (3) how to determine the hedge, which includes the shares of private agricultural companies price of a portfolio, because it is an important element in the calculation of the portfolio, and the fair value of theoretical option of one of the two, and can not be fair theoretical option value of the adoption of the two terms in this area, so that determine portfolio must be for a period of one (years), for example, then the other column (h), which represents a package of shares comes amounted to (1) here, with less to be a million or a thousand or less depending on the nature of the wallet